Hyperdontia is a condition that causes extra teeth to grow in your mouth. These extra teeth are sometimes called supernumerary teeth. They can grow anywhere in the curved areas where teeth attach to your jaw. This area is known as the dental arches.
Symptoms of Hyperdontia?
The main symptom of hyperdontia is the growth of extra teeth directly behind or close to your permanent teeth.
Extra teeth are categorized based on their shape or location in the mouth.
Shapes of extra teeth include:
- Supplemental The tooth is shaped similarly to the type of tooth that it grows near.
- Tuberculate The tooth has a tube or barrel-like shape.
- Compound odontoma The tooth is made up of several small, tooth-like growths near each other.
- Complex odontoma Rather than a single tooth, an area of tooth-like tissue grows in a disordered group.
- Conical The tooth is wide at the base and narrows out near the top, making it look sharp.
Locations of extra teeth include:
- Paramolar An extra tooth grows in the back of your mouth, next to one of your molars.
- Distomolar An extra tooth grows in line with your other molars, rather than around them.
- Mesiodens An extra tooth grows behind or around your incisors at the front of your mouth. This is the most common type of extra tooth in people with hyperdontia.
Hyperdontia usually isn’t painful, but the extra teeth can apply pressure on your jaw and gums, causing swelling and possibly pain. The overcrowding of your teeth can also make your smile crooked and affect one’s confidence.
Causes of Hyperdontia?
Hyperdontia seems to be associated with several hereditary conditions, including:
Cleft palate and lip. Birth defects cause an opening in the roof of the mouth or upper lip, trouble eating or speaking, and ear infections.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. An inherited condition that causes loose joints that easily dislocate, easily bruised skin, scoliosis, and painful muscles and joints.
Fabry disease. This disease results in an inability to sweat, painful hands and feet, a red or blue skin rash, and abdominal pain.
Gardner’s syndrome. A rare genetic disorder that causes skin cysts, skull growths, and colon growths.
Your dentist may recommend removing the extra teeth if you:
- feel pain or discomfort due to overcrowding
- have a hard time properly brushing or flossing because of the extra teeth, which could cause other dental health issues such as tooth decay or periodontal disease
- have an underlying genetic condition causing the extra teeth to appear
- can’t chew food properly or your extra teeth cuts your mouth when you chew
- feel self-conscious about your smile
In some cases, there may never be a need to remove the tooth. But if the extra teeth are starting to affect your dental hygiene or other teeth — like delaying the eruption of permanent teeth — it’s best to remove them as soon as possible. This will help avoid any lasting effects, such as gum disease or crooked teeth.
Always check with your dentist and let him know if there is pain or discomfort.